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EARLY EARTH
Carbonate shells change with time
by Staff Writers
Potsdam, Germany (SPX) Nov 06, 2017


The image shows a foraminifera Orbulina Universa eating a small copepod.

The carbonate shells of tiny marine plankton, foraminifers, are important archives of geochemical records of past climates. Understanding how these plankton make their shells is essential to correctly interpret the geochemical climate signals recorded in them.

Using electron microscopy and infrared spectrometry on ultra-thin slices cut from these shells, Dorrit Jacob from Macquarie University in Australia, together with her colleagues from the Australian National University and the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in Potsdam, Germany, has resolved puzzling issues surrounding foraminifer shells.

The researchers have discovered that, contrary to long-standing textbook knowledge, these shells do not form as calcite, but instead, are originally formed as the metastable carbonate vaterite and only later transform into calcite.

"These findings are important for understanding how chemical elements are incorporated into the shells and how to read these climate archives correctly", explains Dorrit Jacob.

"This promises to resolve hotly debated discrepancies between observations on natural shells and those seen in chemical laboratory experiments".

The presence of vaterite instead of calcite in these abundant organisms also means that foraminifer shells are much more susceptible to ocean acidification than has been previously thought, which carries drastic ramifications for their survival in the future oceans.

Study: "Planktic foraminifera form their shells via metastable carbonate phases" by Jacob, Wirth, Agbaje, Branson and Eggins. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-00955-0

EARLY EARTH
Bandit-masked feathered dinosaur hid from predators using multiple types of camouflage
Bristol UK (SPX) Oct 31, 2017
Researchers from the University of Bristol have revealed how a small feathered dinosaur used its colour patterning, including a bandit mask-like stripe across its eyes, to avoid being detected by its predators and prey. By reconstructing the likely colour patterning of the Chinese dinosaur Sinosauropteryx, researchers have shown that it had multiple types of camouflage which likely helped ... read more

Related Links
GFZ GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Helmholtz Centre
Explore The Early Earth at TerraDaily.com


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