Free Newsletters - Space News - Defense Alert - Environment Report - Energy Monitor
. Earth Science News .




WATER WORLD
Extreme water
by Staff Writers
Munich, Germany (SPX) Mar 15, 2013


File image.

Earth is the only known planet that holds water in massive quantities and in all three phase states. But the earthly, omnipresent compound water has very unusual properties that become particularly evident when subjected to high pressure and high temperatures.

In the latest issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), a German-Finnish-French team published what happens when water is subjected to pressure and temperature conditions such as those found in the deep Earth.

At pressures above 22 MPa and temperatures above 374C, beyond the critical point, water turns into a very aggressive solvent, a fact that is crucial for the physical chemistry of Earth's mantle and crust.

"Without water in Earth's interior there would be no material cycles and no tectonics. But how the water affects processes in the upper mantle and crust is still subject of intense research", said Dr. Max Wilke from the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, who carried out the experiments along with his colleague Dr. Christian Schmidt and a team from the TU Dortmund.

To this end, the research team brought the water to the laboratory. First, the microscopic structure of water as a function of pressure and temperature was studied by means of X-ray Raman scattering. For that purpose, the diamond anvil cells of the GFZ were used at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF in Grenoble.

Inside the cell, a very small sample of water was enclosed, heated and brought to high temperatures and pressures. The data analysis was based on molecular dynamics simulations by the GFZ scientists Sandro Jahn.

"The study shows that the structure of water continuously develops from an ordered, polymerized structure to a disordered, marginally polymerized structure at supercritical conditions," explains Max Wilke.

"The knowledge of these structural properties of water in the deep earth is an important basis for the understanding of chemical distribution processes during metamorphic and magmatic processes."

This study provides an improved estimate of the behavior of water under extreme conditions during geochemical and geological processes. It is believed that the unique properties of supercritical water also control the behavior of magma.

Sahle Ch. J., Sternemann C., Schmidt C., Lehtola S., Jahn S., Simonelli L., Huotari S., Hakala M., Pylkkanen T., Nyrow A., Mende K., Tolan M., Hamalainen K., Wilke M. (2013) Microscopic structure of water at elevated temperatures and pressures. PNAS.

.


Related Links
Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres
Water News - Science, Technology and Politics






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





WATER WORLD
UI study of Midwest finds increase in heavy rainfalls over 60 years
Ames IA (SPX) Mar 14, 2013
Heavy rains have become more frequent in the upper Midwest over the past 60 years, according to a study from the University of Iowa. The trend appears to hold true even with the current drought plaguing the region, the study's main author says. The fact that temperatures over the country's midsection are rising, too, may be more than coincidence.The hotter the surface temperature, which ha ... read more


WATER WORLD
Walker's World: The best news yet

US welcomes Albania offer to resettle Iran exiles

Technology Changing The Future of Home Security

US military member suing over Japan nuke disaster

WATER WORLD
Mobile LIDAR technology expanding rapidly

First Laser Communication System Integrated, Ready for Launch

Earth will drown in garbage

Raytheon's dual-band datalink tested with Thales radar

WATER WORLD
Life found in world's deepest ocean spot

Pacific's Palau looks at commercial fishing ban

Extreme water

New restrictions bite Hong Kong shark fin traders

WATER WORLD
Rivers flowing under Greenland ice traced

The making of Antarctica's hidden fjords

Global warming will open unexpected new shipping routes in Arctic, UCLA researchers find

Glaciers will melt faster than ever and loss could be irreversible warn scientists

WATER WORLD
MEPs retain ag 'greening' measures

Dead pigs in China river exceed 13,000

Heat-stressed cows spend more time standing

Nature fans get green fix at Hong Kong flower show

WATER WORLD
Heavy rains leave 13 dead in Brazil

Japan ups disaster debris estimate to reach N. America

Japan pays for tsunami cleanup on Canadian coast

Japan marks second tsunami anniversary

WATER WORLD
Army, police shadow looms over Zimbabwe polls

I. Coast attack kills six, including two soldiers: army

Sudan, South Sudan agree new timeline to restart oil

China congratulates Kenyatta over election win

WATER WORLD
Neanderthal demise down to eye size?

New study validates longevity pathway

Siberian fossil revealed to be one of the oldest known domestic dogs

Kirk, Spock together: Putting emotion, logic into computational words




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement