Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Earth Science News .




SHAKE AND BLOW
First-ever 3D image created of the structure beneath Sierra Negra volcano
by Staff Writers
Rochester NY (SPX) Mar 06, 2014


This is a photo of the Sierra Negra volcano on Isabela Island in the Galapagos Archipelago. Image courtesy Cynthia Ebinger, University of Rochester.

The Galapagos Islands are home to some of the most active volcanoes in the world, with more than 50 eruptions in the last 200 years. Yet until recently, scientists knew far more about the history of finches, tortoises, and iguanas than of the volcanoes on which these unusual fauna had evolved.

Now research out of the University of Rochester is providing a better picture of the subterranean plumbing system that feeds the Galapagos volcanoes, as well as a major difference with another Pacific Island chain-the Hawaiian Islands. The findings have been published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth.

"With a better understanding of what's beneath the volcanoes, we'll now be able to more accurately measure underground activity," said Cynthia Ebinger, a professor of earth and environmental sciences. "That should help us better anticipate earthquakes and eruptions, and mitigate the hazards associated with them."

Ebinger's team, which included Mario Ruiz from the Instituto Geofisico Escuela Politecnica Nacional in Quito, Ecuador, buried 15 seismometers around Sierra Negra, the largest and most active volcano in the Galapagos.

The equipment was used to measure the velocity and direction of different sound waves generated by earthquakes as they traveled under Sierra Negra. Since the behavior of the waves varies according to the temperature and types of material they're passing through, the data collected allowed the researchers to construct a 3D image of the plumbing system beneath the volcano, using a technique similar to a CAT-scan.

Five kilometers down is the beginning of a large magma chamber lying partially within old oceanic crust that had been buried by more than 8 km of eruptive rock layers. And the oceanic crust has what appears to be a thick underplating of rock formed when magma that was working its way toward the surface became trapped under the crust and cooled-very much like the processes that occur under the Hawaiian Islands.

The researchers found that the Galapagos had something else in common with the Hawaiian Islands. Their data suggest the presence of a large chamber filled with crystal-mush magma-cooled magma that includes crystallized minerals.

The Galapagos Islands formed from a hotspot of magma located in an oceanic plate-called Nazca-about 600 miles of Ecuador, in a process very similar to how the Hawaiian Islands were created. Magma rising from the hotspot eventually hardened into an island. Then, as the Nazca plate inched its way westward, new islands formed in the same manner, resulting in the present-day Galapagos Archipelago.

While there are several similarities between the two island chains, Ebinger uncovered a major difference. The older volcanos in the Hawaiian Islands are dormant, because they've moved away from the hotspot that provided the source of magma. In the Galapagos, the volcanoes are connected to the same plumbing system. By studying satellite views of the volcanoes, Ebinger and colleagues noticed that, as the magma would sink in one, it would rise in a different volcano-indicating that that some of the youngest volcanoes had magma connections, even if those connections were temporary.

"Not only do we have a better understanding of the physical properties of Sierra Negra," said Ebinger, "we have increased out knowledge of island volcano systems, in general."

The Galapagos Islands are home to some of the most active volcanoes in the world, with more than 50 eruptions in the last 200 years. Yet until recently, scientists knew far more about the history of finches, tortoises, and iguanas than of the volcanoes on which these unusual fauna had evolved.

Now research out of the University of Rochester is providing a better picture of the subterranean plumbing system that feeds the Galapagos volcanoes, as well as a major difference with another Pacific Island chain-the Hawaiian Islands.

.


Related Links
University of Rochester
Bringing Order To A World Of Disasters
When the Earth Quakes
A world of storm and tempest






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





SHAKE AND BLOW
Volcanoes, including Mount Hood in the US, can quickly become active
Washington DC (SPX) Feb 27, 2014
New research results suggest that magma sitting 4-5 kilometers beneath the surface of Oregon's Mount Hood has been stored in near-solid conditions for thousands of years. The time it takes to liquefy and potentially erupt, however, is surprisingly short--perhaps as little as a couple of months. The key to an eruption, geoscientists say, is to elevate the temperature of the rock to more tha ... read more


SHAKE AND BLOW
Australia rescues 13 shipwrecked Iranians off Pakistan

UN report sees $1.45 tn global warming cost: media

Corpses still being found in Philippine typhoon zone

Tunisian navy 'rescues 98 sub-Saharan migrants'

SHAKE AND BLOW
3-D printer creates transformative device for heart treatment

First step towards programmable materials

Save Money and the Planet: Turn Your Old Milk Jugs into 3D Printer Filament

New formula to calculate hue improves accuracy of color analysis

SHAKE AND BLOW
Global warming felt to deepest reaches of ocean

Marine algae can sense the rainbow

We want to save water, but do we know how?

The surface of the sea is a sink for nitrogen oxides at night

SHAKE AND BLOW
Warm Rivers Play Role in Arctic Sea Ice Melt

Ancestors of America's original people lived on long-gone land bridge

Native Americans lived in Bering Strait for millennia: study

Alaska mine could be blocked to save salmon fisheries

SHAKE AND BLOW
Homogeneity of food has serious implications for farming and nutrition

Bison ready for new pastures?

Cows are smarter when raised in pairs

New invasive species breakthrough sparks interest around the world

SHAKE AND BLOW
European flood risk could double by 2050

Flood cost in EU may double by 2050: study

Volcanoes, including Mount Hood in the US, can quickly become active

What has happened to the tsunami debris from Japan?

SHAKE AND BLOW
Fighting breaks out in South Sudan army barracks

UN extends easing of Somalia weapons embargo

Little hope for C.Africa Muslims ahead of French president visit

Kenya boosts airport defence, warning of Islamist threat

SHAKE AND BLOW
Research reveals first glimpse of brain circuit that helps experience to shape perception

Cambodia's floating villages face uncertain future

Baylor Sheds New Light on the Habitat of Early Apes

Oldest fortified settlement in North America discovered in Georgia




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.