. Earth Science News .

Nitrogen from humans pollutes remote lakes for more than a century
by Staff Writers
Seattle WA (SPX) Dec 21, 2011

The signal of nitrogen from human activities has been captured in the sediments of McConnell Lake, Alberta, and other remote lakes from the US Rocky Mountains to northern Europe. Credit: R. Vinebrooke.

Nitrogen derived from human activities has polluted lakes throughout the Northern Hemisphere for more than a century and the fingerprint of these changes is evident even in remote lakes located thousands of miles from the nearest city, industrial area or farm.

The findings, published in the journal Science Dec. 16, are based on historical changes in the chemical composition of bottom deposits in 36 lakes using an approach similar to aquatic archeology.

More than three quarters of the lakes, ranging from the U.S. Rocky Mountains to northern Europe, showed a distinctive signal of nitrogen released from human activities before the start of the 20th century, said Gordon Holtgrieve, a postdoctoral researcher at University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences and lead author of the report. The UW and a dozen other research institutions contributed to the research.

"When it comes to nitrogen associated with humans, most studies have focused on local and regional effects of pollution and have missed the planetary scale changes," Holtgrieve said.

"Our study is the first large-scale synthesis to demonstrate that biologically-active nitrogen associated with human society is being transported in the atmosphere to the most remote ecosystems on the planet."

Burning fossil fuel and using agricultural fertilizers are two key ways humans increase the amount of nitrogen entering the atmosphere. Once in the atmosphere, this nitrogen is distributed by atmospheric currents before being deposited back on Earth in rain and snow, often thousands of miles from the source.

"Turns out the world, for nitrogen, is a much smaller place than we'd assumed," said co-author Daniel Schindler, UW professor of aquatic and fishery sciences and the Harriet Bullitt Chair in conservation.

Although nitrogen is a vital nutrient for life - so much so that farmers apply fertilizers containing it to bolster food crops - too much nitrogen can be harmful.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency says humans already have doubled the rate of nitrogen released to the biosphere since 1950. Humans now contribute more nitrogen to the biosphere than all natural processes combined. When produced in developed areas, this excess nitrogen can lead to smog, acid rain and water pollution.

The effects on remote forests, lands and lakes are largely unknown, Schindler said. An increasing body of evidence, however, shows that the biological composition of microscopic communities in Arctic lakes changed with the arrival of human-derived nitrogen.

This global nitrogen pollution may interact with climate change to produce a "double whammy" that could alter remote lakes in ways not seen in the past 10,000 years, Schindler said.

Using statistical models to analyze nitrogen characteristics of lake sediments, the authors show that the chemical fingerprint of nitrogen pollution started about 115 years ago, shortly after the Industrial Revolution, and that the rate of chemical changes increased during the last 60 years with industrial production of nitrogen for fertilizers.

"This study also provides an explicit chronology for entry of the Earth into the 'Anthropocene' - a new geological era in which global biogeochemical cycles have been fundamentally altered by human activity," said co-author Peter Leavitt, professor of biology at the University of Regina and the Canada Research Chair in environmental change.

"The signal will only get stronger in the future as we double fertilizer use in the next 40 years to feed 3 billion more people."

The authors conclude that climate, natural sources of nitrogen, and normal chemical processes on land and in water cannot account for the chemical signals they observe.

"Given the broad geographic distribution of our sites - and the range of temperate, alpine and arctic ecosystems - we believe the best explanation is that human-derived nitrogen was deposited from the atmosphere," Holtgrieve said.

"The global change debate is dominated by discussions of carbon emissions, whether among scientists, politicians or the lay public," said co-author Alexander Wolfe, professor of earth and atmospheric sciences at the University of Alberta. "However, in a relative sense, the global nitrogen cycle has been far more perturbed by humanity than that of carbon."

Other co-authors are William Hobbs with Science Museum of Minnesota, Eric Ward with National Marine Fisheries Service, Lynda Bunting with University of Regina, Guangjie Chen with McGill University and Yunnan Normal University, Bruce Finney and Mark Shapley with Idaho State University, Irene Gregory-Eaves with McGill University, Sofia Holmgren with Lund University, Mark Lisac and Patrick Walsh with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Peter Lisi and Lauren Rogers with the University of Washington, Koren Nydick with Mountain Studies Institute, Colorado, Jasmine Saros with University of Maine, and Daniel Selbie with Fisheries and Oceans Canada.

Related Links
University of Washington
Water News - Science, Technology and Politics

Get Our Free Newsletters Via Email
Buy Advertising Editorial Enquiries


. Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Data-driven tools cast geographical patterns of rainfall extremes in new light
Oak Ridge TN (SPX) Dec 21, 2011
Using statistical analysis methods to examine rainfall extremes in India, a team of researchers has made a discovery that resolves an ongoing debate in published findings and offers new insights. The study, initiated by Auroop Ganguly and colleagues at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, reports no evidence for uniformly increasing trends in rainfall extremes averaged over the entire Indian region. ... read more

More help arrives for Philippine flood victims

Room at the inn for Fukushima believers

Fukushima reactors may take 40 years to dismantle

UN calls for Philippine flood aid

Canada hunts for rare earth metals as China cuts back

Landmark discovery has magnetic appeal for scientists

New Take on Impacts of Low Dose Radiation

Need a new material? New tool can help

Nitrogen from humans pollutes remote lakes for more than a century

Data-driven tools cast geographical patterns of rainfall extremes in new light

IDFC: India's water supply at risk

What are the prospects for sustaining high-quality groundwater

Season's greetings from the other extreme

Will Antarctic worms warm to changing climate

Using new technology to record Antarctic Ocean, ice temperatures

Central Asian glaciers resist warming

More Canadian farmers going high-tech

Southampton researchers help to outline world's land and water resources for food and agriculture

Chinese scientist gets 7 years for stealing US secrets

New insight into why locusts swarm

Christmas Eve aftershock rattles tense N. Zealanders

Tanzanian deluge kills 23

Indonesia girl reunited with family after 2004 tsunami

Powerful quakes send terrified N. Zealanders fleeing

Bongo party wins landslide in Gabon vote: official

Fighter jets kill 10 in south Somali air raid: witnesses

First Djibouti troops join AU Somalia force

US special forces in Central Africa for LRA rebel hunt

Human skull study causes evolutionary headache

Malaysian 'lords of the jungle' cling to ancient ways

Mind reading machines on their way: IBM

I wanna talk like you


The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2012 - Space Media Network. AFP and UPI Wire Stories are copyright Agence France-Presse and United Press International. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement