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SHAKE AND BLOW
Scramble for survivors as quake flattens Mexico City buildings
By Jennifer GONZALEZ COVARRUBIAS
Mexico City (AFP) Sept 20, 2017


Other deadly quakes to hit Mexico
Paris (AFP) Sept 20, 2017 - The earthquake that shook Mexico on Tuesday, with more than 200 confirmed dead, struck on the same date as one three decades ago that killed more than 10,000 people.

The country sits atop several large tectonic plates, making it prone to quakes. Here are some of the others that have hit the country.

- September 7, 2017: Measured at a strength of 8.2, this quake is more powerful but less deadly than the one 32 years ago that killed thousands.

Around 100 people are killed and more than 200 hurt, with the southern states of Oaxaca and Chiapas most affected. The quake is felt as far north as Mexico City -- about 800 kilometres (500 miles) from the epicentre.

- January 21, 2003: A 7.6-magnitude quake shakes the western Pacific coast, killing 29 people and injuring more than 300.

- September 30, 1999: At least 22 people are killed in a 7.5-magnitude quake that strikes southern and central areas.

- June 15, 1999: A 7-magnitude quake kills at least 25 people in the central Puebla region.

- October 9, 1995: Measured at 8, this earthquake hits the western states of Colima and Jalisco, leaving at least 48 dead. In the town of Manzanillo alone, around 30 people are killed when a seven-storey hotel collapses.

- September 19, 1985: One of the most powerful ever in the country, this 8.1-strong quake kills at least 10,000 people in Mexico City, though some estimates put the toll as high as 30,000. The epicentre is 350 kilometres from the capital, large sections of which are razed.

Since this disaster, Mexican authorities have tightened construction regulations and developed an early warning system using a hundred sensors along the Pacific coast, where the risk of earthquakes is greatest.

When the earthquake hit, it sent panicked people running into the street but many weren't so lucky. The dust settled minutes later to reveal a landscape of flattened buildings and rubble in the heart of Mexico City.

"Awful. I think it was one of the strongest we've felt. I don't know what magnitude, but it was awful," said Pedro Cruz Martinez, a public servant cradling his little girl, after joining the rush of fearful parents to a local school.

After the screams and the shock, people quickly set to work digging for survivors.

In a scene reproduced in streets across the city center, dozens of people scrabbled with bare hands to remove rubble from atop a concertinaed building as they waited for specialized machinery to arrive.

Central areas like Roma, Condesa and Doctores appeared to have taken the brunt of the 7.1-magnitude quake.

Several buildings were completely flattened in Roma, popular for its bars and restaurants and one of the neighborhoods hit hardest by the 1985 earthquake that shattered large swathes of this city and killed at least 10,000 -- 32 years ago to the day.

Amid the tears and terror, there were small victories.

Cheers and applause echoed around the crowded Calle Alvaro Obregon in Roma as rescuers managed to pull someone from under the rubble.

There remained a sense that such moments would be rare, however.

In other buildings in the same area, volunteers joined the authorities to remove debris. One of them held a sign with the word "silence" in order to be able to hear people who may still be alive.

- 'Take care' -

Dozens of buildings collapsed in Mexico City -- home to 20 million people -- as the overall death stood at 216 early Wednesday in the capital city and across a swath of central states.

Authorities asked for help from volunteers and for water. Some police officers came through the crowd carrying containers of water.

Medics set up makeshift field hospitals in the streets, treating people for broken limbs and crush injuries.

Many people lay on stretchers, with medics holding strips of cardboard boxes over victims' heads to protect them from the sun.

"Darling, if you want to help, go ahead. Just give me your glasses and be careful," a woman told her doctor husband as they gazed at buildings reduced to rubble, the intimacy of people's homes laid bare as curtains swayed in buildings without walls.

Police called for calm and cordoned off streets with grotesquely twisted buildings, their reinforcing steel poking out from concrete.

People hugged and comforted each other amid anxiety about loved ones. Many stood around in a daze, not sure where to go or what to do.

But everyone was staying in the streets, afraid to go home.

Major earthquakes of the past 30 years
Hong Kong (AFP) Sept 20, 2017 - A 7.1-magnitude earthquake has struck central Mexico, killing at least 140 people on the anniversary of a devastating 1985 quake.

Here are some of the most significant earthquakes of the last 30 years.

-- Sept 7, 2017: A quake strikes the southern part of Mexico, killing 96 people. Seismological authorities measured the quake at 8.2, surpassing the 8.1-quake that killed 10,000 people in Mexico City in 1985.

-- Jan 18, 2017 - Four earthquakes hit central Italy. About three hours later, an avalanche slams into a hotel on the eastern slopes of Monte Gran Sasso, burying the structure in rock and snow and killing 29 people.

-- August 8, 2017: A relatively shallow 6.3-magnitude earthquake rattles northwest China, followed by two smaller aftershocks. Twenty-four people killed.

-- August 24, 2016: A quake with a magnitude of up to 6.2 hits villages in central Italy, killing nearly 300 people. The tremor was felt in Rome, 150 kilometres (93 miles) from the epicentre near Amatrice.

-- April 16, 2016: A 7.8-magnitude quake strikes Ecuador, killing 673 people and levelling thousands of buildings up and down the coast.

-- February, 2016: A 6.4-magnitude quake hit Taiwan's Tainan. More than 100 people are killed after a building collapses.

-- October 26, 2015: A powerful 7.5-magnitude quake strikes Afghanistan's Hindu Kush region and is felt through much of South Asia.

-- April 25, 2015: A 7.8 magnitude quake in Nepal kills almost 8,900 people and destroys about half a million homes. A massive aftershock with a magnitude of 7.3 follows in May, killing dozens more.

-- August 11, 2012: Twin earthquakes with magnitude 6.3 and 6.4 leave 306 dead and more than 3,000 injured near the Iranian city of Tabriz.

-- March 11, 2011: Around 18,500 are killed when a tsunami triggered by a massive magnitude 9.1 undersea quake slams into the northeast coast of Japan, triggering a nuclear crisis at the Fukushima Daiichi atomic plant.

-- October 23, 2011: An earthquake of 7.2 magnitude rocks eastern Turkey, leaving more than 600 dead and at least 4,150 injured.

-- January 12, 2010: Magnitude 7.0 quake hits Haiti, leaving between 250,000 and 300,000 dead.

-- April 14, 2010: A 6.9-magnitude quake hits Yushu county in northwest China's Qinghai province leaving 3,000 people dead and missing.

-- May 12, 2008: A quake measuring 8.0 hits China's southwest province of Sichuan, leaving more than 87,000 people dead or missing.

-- May 27, 2006: A powerful quake in Indonesia's Yogyakarta region kills 6,000 and leaves 1.5 million homeless.

-- October 8, 2005: An earthquake of 7.6 magnitude kills more than 75,000 people, the vast majority of them in Pakistan's North West Frontier Province and the Pakistani-administered zone of Kashmir state. Some 3.5 million are displaced.

-- March 28, 2005: An earthquake on Indonesia's Nias island off Sumatra leaves 900 dead.

-- December 26, 2004: A magnitude 9.3 undersea earthquake off the coast of Sumatra triggers a tsunami that kills 220,000 in countries around the Indian Ocean, including 168,000 in Indonesia.

-- December 26, 2003: A quake measuring 6.7 hits the Iranian city of Bam, killing at least 31,884 people and injuring 18,000.

-- January 26, 2001: A massive 7.7 earthquake hits the western Indian state of Gujarat, killing 25,000 people and injuring 166,000.

-- September 30, 1993: A 6.3-magnitude quake hits the western Indian state of Maharashtra, killing 7,601.

-- October 20, 1991: A quake measuring 6.6 hits the Himalayan foothills of Uttar Pradesh state in India, killing 768.

-- August 20, 1988: A magnitude 6.8 quake hits eastern Nepal, killing 721 people in Nepal and at least 277 in the neighbouring Indian state of Bihar.

SHAKE AND BLOW
2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake: Results from seismic reflection data
Boulder CO (SPX) Sep 13, 2017
A striking finding of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) is that more than 50 meters of coseismic fault slip reached the trench axis. In addition to this, seismological studies found a clear depth-dependent variation in the source location between high- and low-frequency seismic energy radiation. However, structural features that may control the slip behavior in the rupture zone have not be ... read more

Related Links
Bringing Order To A World Of Disasters
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