Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Earth Science News .




OZONE NEWS
Antarctic Ozone Hole Slightly Smaller than Average This Year
by Kathryn Hansen for Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt MD (SPX) Oct 28, 2013


The Antarctic ozone hole reached its maximum single-day area for 2013 on Sept. 16. The ozone hole (purple and blue) is the region over Antarctica with total ozone at or below 220 Dobson units (a common unit for measuring ozone concentration). Image Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center.

The ozone hole that forms each year in the stratosphere over Antarctica was slightly smaller in 2013 than average in recent decades, according to NASA satellite data.

The ozone hole is a seasonal phenomenon that starts to form during the Antarctic spring (August and September). The September-October 2013 average size of the hole was 8.1 million square miles (21 million square kilometers). For comparison, the average size measured since the mid-1990s when the annual maximum size stopped growing is 8.7 million square miles (22.5 million square kilometers).

However, the size of the hole in any particular year is not enough information for scientists to determine whether a healing of the hole has begun.

"There was a lot of Antarctic ozone depletion in 2013, but because of above average temperatures in the Antarctic lower stratosphere, the ozone hole was a bit below average compared to ozone holes observed since 1990," said Paul Newman, an atmospheric scientist and ozone expert at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

The ozone hole forms when the sun begins rising again after several months of winter darkness. Polar-circling winds keep cold air trapped above the continent, and sunlight-sparked reactions involving ice clouds and chlorine from manmade chemicals begin eating away at the ozone. Most years, the conditions for ozone depletion ease before early December when the seasonal hole closes.

Levels of most ozone-depleting chemicals in the atmosphere have gradually declined as the result of the 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international treaty to protect the ozone layer by phasing out production of ozone-depleting chemicals. As a result, the size of the hole has stabilized, with variation from year to year driven by changing meteorological conditions.

The single-day maximum area this year was reached on Sept. 16 when the maximum area reached 9.3 million square miles (24 million square kilometers), about equal to the size of North America. The largest single-day ozone hole since the mid-1990s was 11.5 million square miles (29.9 million square kilometers) on Sept. 9, 2000.

Science teams from NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been monitoring the ozone layer from the ground and with a variety of instruments on satellites and balloons since the 1970s.

These ozone instruments capture different aspects of ozone depletion. The independent analyses ensure that the international community understands the trends in this critical part of Earth's atmosphere. The resulting views of the ozone hole have differences in the computation of the size of the ozone hole, its depth, and record dates.

NASA observations of the ozone hole during 2013 were produced from data supplied by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite and the Ozone Monitoring and Profiler Suite instrument on the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite.

Long-term satellite ozone-monitoring instruments have included the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, the second generation Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument, the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment series of instruments, and the Microwave Limb Sounder.

.


Related Links
NASA Ozone Hole Watch
All about the Ozone Layer






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





OZONE NEWS
Antarctic ozone hole linked to warming in southern Africa
Bindura, Zimbabwe (UPI) Oct 14, 2013
A decades-long warming trend in southern Africa is likely the result of the ozone hole over the Antarctic and its effect on wind circulation, researchers say. In early summer southern Africa is affected by what is known as the Angola Low, a low-pressure system that pulls in warm air from the lower latitudes, increasing temperatures. But during the past 20 years, the researchers s ... read more


OZONE NEWS
Space technologies boost disaster reduction int'l co-op

How to Manage Nature's Runaway Freight Trains

Uruguay to pull peacekeepers from Haiti: president

Storm-battered northern Europe slowly gets back to normal

OZONE NEWS
Historic Demonstration Proves Laser Communication Possible

UNC neuroscientists discover new 'mini-neural computer' in the brain

Birthing a new breed of materials

Unique chemistry in hydrogen catalysts

OZONE NEWS
Physicists provide new insights into coral skeleton formation

Coral chemicals protect against warming oceans

Spain's Gas Natural Fenosa opens new Galicia hydropower plant

Brazil court orders resumption of work on Amazon dam

OZONE NEWS
Families ask Ottawa to demand Russia release activists

Greenpeace activists hit out at detention conditions

Maritime tribunal to hear 'Arctic Sunrise' case on Nov 6

New study finds unprecedented warmth in Arctic

OZONE NEWS
Second GM corn set for EU approval after Court ruling: EU sources

For fish and rice to thrive in Yolo Bypass, 'just add water'

Brazil energy, farm incentives fuel CO2 emissions

Argentine bread prices keep rising as grain scarcity kicks in

OZONE NEWS
Floods kill 48 in eastern India: report

Fukushima workers evacuated as small tsunami hits Japan

Japan mudslide islanders take shelter as new storm looms

Philippine earthquake creates miles-long rocky wall

OZONE NEWS
Ghana arrests 46 more foreigners over illegal gold mining

Congo army 'has crushed eastern rebellion,' but peace elusive

Four Frenchmen head home after three-year kidnap ordeal in Niger

Four French hostages kidnapped in Niger released: Hollande

OZONE NEWS
Study: Humans made sophisticated stone tools earlier than thought

Did hard-wired fear of snakes drive evolution of human vision?

Hair regeneration method is first to induce new human hair growth

No known hominin is ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement