Subscribe to our free daily newsletters
. Earth Science News .




Subscribe to our free daily newsletters



WATER WORLD
CO2 keeps even small fry invasive carp at bay
by Staff Writers
Urbana IL (SPX) Nov 27, 2015


Silver and bighead (also known as Asian) carp grow rapidly and eat the zooplankton (small animals) and phytoplankton (small plants) that other fish and other aquatic organisms depend upon and pull the rug out from under the food chain. Image courtesy of Asian Carp Regional Coordinating Committee. For a larger version of this image please go here.

University of Illinois researcher Cory Suski has already shown that bubbling high concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) into water is a deterrent to invasive Asian carp adults. The gas makes them feel 'woozy' and they choose to swim away. His recent research shows that fish the size of an eyelash also experience negative consequences following CO2 exposure.

"We conducted carbon dioxide challenge experiments on juveniles of four species - largemouth bass, bluegill, silver carp, and bighead carp, and on eight-day-old hatched fry of both carp species," Suski said. "Results from the study demonstrate that juvenile fishes of all four species actively avoid areas of water with elevated CO2 once concentrations reached approximately 200 milligrams per liter, which is lower than a can of carbonated soda."

Suski explained that the larvae they used were so tiny that their behavior couldn't be tested so gene expression data were used. "Even at only eight days old, there are physiological problems happening to those animals when they are put into a high CO2 environment," he said. "The biomarkers of stress turned on. So we now have evidence all the way from large adult fish to eight-day-old fish that CO2 causes disturbance."

Believing that two barriers are better than one, Suski suggests that carbon dioxide be used to keep invasive species from entering Lake Michigan by working in tandem with electric barriers. The electric barriers emit a low-voltage charge. As large fish swim toward the electric barrier, they sense the charge and swim away. Unfortunately, no non-physical barrier is 100 percent effective against all fish in all situations so additional barriers would help with control.

"What we've found is that none of these non-physical barriers is 100 percent effective - electricity, strobe lights, bubble curtains, and I'd even put CO2 in that category," he said. "They all have drawbacks. For example, the electric barriers are prone to shut down due to routine maintenance and power outages, and when debris clogs them, leaving the canals vulnerable to aquatic invaders. Also, working near the electric barriers on repairs poses health and safety concerns for the maintenance crew and shipmen."

Suski says the CO2 method doesn't pose safety risks, is relatively cheap to use, and is portable with little installation or equipment required. The gas can be easily pumped into a small backwater area where there are known populations of carp - basically with a hose and tank of CO2.

"The suppliers we have used to date have obtained waste CO2 from oil and gas refineries or from soybean processing plants so we're not smelting coal to generate carbon dioxide," he added. "We're taking waste CO2 and repurposing it."

So far, the CO2 method has been tested in small laboratory tanks, ponds, and most recently at the Upper Midwest Environmental Science Center in Lacrosse, Wisc., on a much larger scale - 1.6 million gallons of water covering half an acre. The preliminary findings from this test mirror the results from those on a smaller scale.

Suski describes his work on CO2 as a progression and more of a research program. Tests have been conducted on a variety of scales and a range of species, including another Great Lakes invader, the sea lamprey. "Lamprey is an ancient species that predates animals with jaws," Suski said. "So from an evolutionary perspective, we have data ranging from ancient species, to carp that originated in Asia, and largemouth bass and bluegill that originated in North America - a great diversity of fish that span a long time frame."

According to Suski, Asian carp grow rapidly and eat the zooplankton (small animals) and phytoplankton (small plants) that other fish and other aquatic organisms depend upon and pull the rug out from under the food chain. They've already invaded the Mississippi River all the way to Minnesota and are about 21 miles downstream from the electric barriers in the Chicago Area Waterway System.

"If they get into the Great Lakes, they have potential to spread throughout eastern North America," Suski said.

'Molecular and behavioral responses of early-life stage fishes to elevated carbon dioxide' was written by Clark E. Dennis III, Shivani Adhikari, and Cory D. Suski and was published in a recent issue of Biological Invasions.


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

.


Related Links
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
Water News - Science, Technology and Politics






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Previous Report
WATER WORLD
Sharks' hunting ability destroyed under climate change
Adelaide, Australia (SPX) Nov 19, 2015
The hunting ability and growth of sharks will be dramatically impacted by increased CO2 levels and warmer oceans expected by the end of the century, a University of Adelaide study has found. Published in the journal Scientific Reports, marine ecologists from the University of Adelaide's Environment Institute report long-term experiments that show warmer waters and ocean acidification will ... read more


WATER WORLD
Preventing famine with mobile phones

MSF hospital strike was 'human error': US general

Brazil mining giant rejects UN anger over 'toxic' flood

Children study under open skies as quake rocks education in Pakistan

WATER WORLD
Creating a new vision for multifunctional materials

3-D printing aids in understanding food enjoyment

Success in producing a completely rare-earth free Feni magnet

Bringing the chaos in light sources under control

WATER WORLD
River turbines turn Austria's Danube from blue to green

Powerful new global arena needed to confront coming water challenges

Warming ocean worsened Australia's fatal 2011 floods

Fish use smart camouflage mechanism in open ocean waters

WATER WORLD
Sea level rise from Antarctic collapse may be slower than suggested

Sea ice loss associated with increased summer land use by polar bears

Polar tourists see an icy world melt

New arrivals in Antarctica

WATER WORLD
Trade may not help a warming planet fight its farming failures

South American origins and spread of the Irish potato famine pathogen

High yield crops a step closer in light of photosynthesis discovery

Going native - for the soil

WATER WORLD
Flooding brings Qatar to near standstill

Great Barrier Reef protecting against landslides, tsunamis

Hurricane Sandra surges to Category 4 in Pacific

Hidden earthquakes present challenge to earthquake early-warning systems

WATER WORLD
Pope warns poverty fuels conflict on landmark Africa trip

Huge crowds as pope celebrates first mass in Africa

Massive 'development corridors' in Africa could spell environmental disaster

Pope readies for Africa, riskiest trip of his papacy

WATER WORLD
Fossilized Homo erectus skull found in China

Clues emerge about the earliest known Americans

Human brains evolved to be more responsive to environmental influences

'Fourth strand' of European ancestry originated with hunter-gatherers isolated by Ice Age




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement