Free Newsletters - Space News - Defense Alert - Environment Report - Energy Monitor
. Earth Science News .




EPIDEMICS
Discovery may help prevent HIV 'reservoirs' from forming
by Staff Writers
Bronx NY (SPX) Apr 19, 2013


File image.

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have discovered how the protein that blocks HIV-1 from multiplying in white blood cells is regulated.

HIV-1 is the virus that causes AIDS, and the discovery could lead to novel approaches for addressing HIV-1 "in hiding" - namely eliminating reservoirs of HIV-1 that persist in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. The study was published in the online edition of the journal Cell Host and Microbe.

Antiretroviral therapy can reduce blood levels of HIV-1 until they are undetectable. But despite drug therapy, reservoirs of HIV-1 can persist in several types of white cells, notably macrophages - important immune cells that help clear pathogens and other potentially harmful substances from the body.

"If you stop antiretroviral therapy, the virus emerges from these reservoirs and returns to the general circulation in a matter of days, as if the patient had never been treated," said senior author Felipe Diaz-Griffero, Ph.D., assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at Einstein. "Now we know the protein that we need to control so we can prevent HIV-1 reservoirs from forming or eliminate them entirely."

Scientists have known that a protein called SAMHD1 prevents HIV-1 from replicating in certain immune cells. But until now, it was not understood why SAMHD1 fails to function in immune cells like macrophages that are vulnerable to HIV-1 infection.

Using mass spectrometry, a tool for determining molecular composition, Dr. Diaz-Griffero found that SAMHD1 can exist in two configurations known as phosphorylated and unphosphorylated. (Phosphorylation is an important cellular process in which phosphate groups attach to other molecules, thereby activating various signaling and regulatory mechanisms within the cell.)

When SAMHD1 is phosphorylated - the situation in immune cells that divide - the cell is not protected from being infected with HIV-1. When the protein is not phosphorylated - as occurs in the nondividing macrophages - the cell is protected from HIV infection.

"We are currently exploring ways to keep this protein unphosphorylated so that HIV reservoirs will never be formed," said Dr. Diaz-Griffero.

The title of the paper is "The Retroviral Restriction ability of SAMHD1 is Regulated by Phosphorylation." Other Einstein contributors are Tommy E. White; Alberto Brandariz-Nunez, Ph.D.; Jose Carlos Valle-Casuso, Ph.D.; and Marina Tuzova. Additional authors include Sarah Amie, Ph.D.; Laura Nguyen, Ph.D.; and Baek Kim, Ph.D., all at the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY. The study was funded by a grant (AI087390) from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health.

.


Related Links
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Epidemics on Earth - Bird Flu, HIV/AIDS, Ebola






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





EPIDEMICS
New bird flu strain seen adapting to mammals, humans
Madison WI (SPX) Apr 18, 2013
A genetic analysis of the avian flu virus responsible for at least nine human deaths in China portrays a virus evolving to adapt to human cells, raising concern about its potential to spark a new global flu pandemic. The collaborative study, conducted by a group led by Masato Tashiro of the Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka of ... read more


EPIDEMICS
Hong Kong searches for 6 missing crew after boat crash

Texas fertilizer plant blast 'kills up to 15'

Fukushima leaking radioactive water

IAEA begins fresh probe into Japan's Fukushima

EPIDEMICS
Softening steel problem expands computer model applications

New material gets itself into shape

For the very first time, two spacecraft will fly in formation with millimeter precision

High pressure gold nanocrystal structure revealed

EPIDEMICS
New technique measures evaporation globally

Study reveals seasonal patterns of tropical rainfall changes from global warming

Liverpool Bay sediment discovery could save millions

Mass sea lion strandings baffle California

EPIDEMICS
An SwRI-led remote-sensing study quantifies permafrost degradation in Arctic Alaskan wetlands

Prince Harry to trek to South Pole with wounded troops

Pleas for US to name first ambassador to Arctic

Fossils provide insight into origin of unique Antarctic ecosystem

EPIDEMICS
UBC researchers weed out ineffective biocontrol agents

Life is sweet for beekepers in Greece, but for how long?

Virginia Tech research team creates potential food source from non-food plants

Egypt faces food crisis over wheat shortage

EPIDEMICS
Kenya floods claims 63 lives in past month: government

Pakistan quake victims clamour for aid

More than 12,000 affected by quake in Pakistan: official

Research aims to settle debate over origin of Yellowstone volcano

EPIDEMICS
Regional bloc to send 2,000 troops to stabilise C.Africa

Radical Nigeria cleric rejects place on amnesty panel

Zimbabwe deputy PM tells Africa to be tough on China

Nigeria moves closer to amnesty offer for Islamists

EPIDEMICS
Fascinating rhythm: The brain's 'slow waves'

New Research Reveals How Human Ancestor Walked, Chewed, and Moved

Pottery reveals Ice Age hunter-gatherers' taste for fish

Google adds 'digital estate planning' to its services




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement