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CLIMATE SCIENCE
Fractious Doha talks bode ill for 2020 deal, observers say
by Staff Writers
Doha (AFP) Dec 9, 2012


Key points of the Doha Climate Gateway
Doha (AFP) Dec 8, 2012 - Key points of the climate package deal concluded in Doha on Saturday, dubbed the Doha Climate Gateway.

KYOTO PROTOCOL:

The world's only binding pact on curbing Earth-warming greenhouse gas emissions was given a new lease on life in the form of a "second commitment period" to follow the first leg that ends on December 31.

It will run from January 1, 2013 to the end of 2020, binding the 27-member European Union and 10 other industrialised nations, including Australia and Switzerland, to emission cuts.

FUNDING FOR DEVELOPING NATIONS:

The text of the Doha deal urges developed countries to announce pledges "when their financial circumstances permit."

The issue had threatened to derail the annual UN huddle, with developed nations under pressure to put money on the table from next year, growing to at least $100 billion (76 billion euros) per year by 2020.

The rich world had provided a total $30 billion in funding for poor countries' climate plans in 2010-2012, but the European Union, United States and Japan have pledged nothing for the period 2013-2019.

Developing countries say they need at least another $60 billion between now and 2015 -- starting with $20 billion from next year -- to deal with a climate change-induced rise in droughts, floods, rising sea levels and storms.

The Doha text urges developed nations to submit by next year's UN climate huddle in Warsaw "information on their strategies and approaches for mobilising scaled-up climate finance to $100 billion per year by 2020."

LOSS AND DAMAGE:

In response to a call from poor countries and those most vulnerable to climate change-related damage, delegates from the developed world gave the go-ahead after long fights behind closed doors for the creation in Warsaw of "institutional arrangements" for loss and damage.

NEW GLOBAL DEAL:

The parties reiterated their intention to draft a new, global pact by 2015 to replace the Kyoto Protocol from 2020.

The new deal will bind all the world's nations.

The conference said a draft negotiating text must be finalised no later than May 2015.

The gathering welcomed plans by UN chief Ban Ki-moon to host world leaders during the course of 2014 to give momentum to the quest for a new deal by 2015.

PRE-2020 EMISSIONS:

The conference said ways must be found to close the growing gap between countries' emissions targets and the actual curbs required to keep Earth on track to manageable warming of no more than two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) on average from pre-industrial levels.

The fractious debate at UN climate talks in Doha points to a rocky road ahead to a new, global 2020 deal on saving the Earth from calamitous global warming, observers say.

A consensus interim agreement that many say is low on substance, was passed after two weeks of intense haggling that deadlocked almost from day one and highlighted deep fault lines between rich and poor nations.

"If we make a judgment based on what we've seen in these negotiations so far, there is no reason to be optimistic" about a fair, new global deal, Greenpeace International executive director Kumi Naidoo told AFP.

The key dispute has remained unaltered for more than two decades -- sharing out responsibility for tackling what UN chief Ban Ki-moon called the climate change "crisis".

The developing world places the onus for financing and deep emissions cuts on rich countries which they say got where they are today by pumping the bulk of Earth-warming greenhouse gases into the atmosphere during the industrial era.

But rich countries led by the United States, which has refused to ratify the emissions-curbing Kyoto Protocol, insist on imposing a duty on poorer nations polluting heavily today as they burn coal to bolster their developing economies.

"It is going to take a lot of hard work, a lot of compromise," climate observer Alden Meyer of the US-based Union of Concerned Scientists told AFP.

The new deal covering all the world's nations must be negotiated by 2015.

A slew of recent reports has warned that the Earth is on the road to dangerous warming levels with ever more extreme weather events like superstorm Sandy that struck the US east coast and Caribbean in October and the deadly typhoon that swept through the Philippines.

"We are headed on current plans for likely increases of 3 centigrade degrees or more -- temperatures far outside those that Homo sapiens has ever experienced," British economist Nick Stern, author of a landmark climate change report, said of the Doha deal.

The UN is targeting a limited warming of two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) above pre-industrial levels.

Battered and bruised, negotiators applauded as conference chairman Abdullah bin Hamad al-Attiyah of Qatar rushed through a package of deals he called the Doha Climate Gateway on Saturday evening.

The package gave a second life to the Kyoto Protocol, albeit in a watered-down form -- placing binding emissions cut targets on the European Union and 10 other developed countries jointly responsible for about 15 percent of the world's emissions.

While there is relief that Doha delivered some kind of a deal, many worry it has not laid down a firm enough foundation.

The package includes wording on scaling up funding from now until 2020 to help poor countries deal with global warming and convert to planet-friendlier energy sources -- but does not list any figures.

It is also short on detail on stepping up urgently needed pre-2020 emissions cuts by non-Kyoto partners, which include the world's first and fourth biggest polluters, developing nations China and India, as well as the second-placed United States.

"Very intense negotiations lie ahead of us. What we need now is more ambition and more speed," European climate commissioner Connie Hedegaard said.

Philippine climate envoy Naderev Sano made an emotional appeal to delegates to take heed of the typhoon that killed more than 500 people in his country as the talks bogged down in Doha, and recognise "the stark reality that we face".

Yet greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise.

"There has been, yet again, a very big mismatch between the scale and urgency of action required to effectively manage the huge risks of climate change, and the political will and ambition that has been displayed," said Stern.

But narrow, domestic interests will likely continue to hamstring negotiations.

The United States is vehemently opposed to a global deal that imposes goals from the top down, insisting it wants a "flexible" system that allows nations themselves to determine what they can contribute.

"It is going to be hard because you need both the United States and China in alignment, and the politics lining up in those two countries to feel they can go much farther for 2020 and make the kind of commitments we need," said Meyer.

Observers have welcomed Ban's announcement that he will host a climate summit in 2014, allowing crucial political decisions to be taken right at the top relatively early in the negotiations.

But others say there is no time to wait on the UN process.

Danish politician Lars Rasmussen, who chaired the 2009 Copenhagen summit widely dubbed disappointing, told AFP this week he has "lost patience" with the multilateral process.

He now chairs the Global Green Growth Institute that helps developing countries convert to greener energy.

"We need a legal, multilateral framework, targets, we need to make progress. But we cannot wait for that to happen," he said.

UN climate talks: Kyoto Protocol factfile
Doha (AFP) Dec 8, 2012 - A factfile on the Kyoto Protocol which got a new lease of life at UN climate talks in Doha, albeit in a watered-down guise covering only about 15 percent of the world's greenhouse gas emissions.

WHAT IS IT?

With 191 members, the 1997 Kyoto Protocol is the only global treaty with binding limits on Earth-warming greenhouse gas emissions.

Its first leg, which expires on December 31, committed 37 developed "Annex 1" economies to an average five-percent cut from 1990 levels in the period 2008-2012 -- a target that was largely met.

When the pact came into force in 2005, it bound countries responsible for nearly two-thirds of global emissions.

It excluded developing countries like China and India, which have since become the world's largest and fourth largest polluters according to the International Energy Agency, as well as second-placed United States which refused to ratify the deal.

From January 1, 2013 to the end of 2020, when a new, global deal will enter into force, the protocol will live on in the form of a "second commitment period."

Russia, Japan, New Zealand and Canada, the only country to have withdrawn from the pact, have not renewed their emissions targets in a second round.

WHO IS IN?

The 27-member European Union has committed itself to a 20 percent cut on 1990 emission levels, dismissing calls to raise the bar to 30 percent.

The other signatories and their targets are:

   Australia     -- five percent on 2000 levels (the only country not to use 
1990                     as a base year.
   Belarus       -- eight percent
   Croatia       -- 20 percent (with the EU)
   Iceland       -- 20 percent (with the EU)
   Kazakhstan    -- seven percent
Liechtenstein -- 20 percent

   Monaco        -- 30 percent
   Norway        -- 30 percent
   Switzerland   -- 20 percent
   Ukraine       -- 20 percent
The protocol's text, amended in Doha, commits parties to revisiting their targets, with a view to increasing them, by 2014.

HOW DOES IT WORK?

Annex 1 countries can meet their targets by cutting emissions or buying unused allowances from other countries, or earn credits by funding Earth-friendly energy projects in developing nations, which they can sell or use to offset emissions.

Former East Bloc countries like Russia and Poland managed to stock up billions of credits because of lenient targets, so-called "hot air" which the new deal allows them to bank into a follow-up period. The text is quiet on what happens after 2020.

"Hot air," when traded, causes emissions to be cancelled on paper but not in the atmosphere.

Most potential markets, including the EU and Australia, have said they will not be buying credits carried over from 2012 -- an issue that complicated the Doha negotiations with Russia and Poland.

WHY?

The UN has set a target of limiting global warming to 2.0 degrees Celsius (3.6 Fahrenheit) from pre-industrial levels -- a level at which scientists say the planet may be spared the worst impacts of climate change.

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