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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
Japan's nuclear power crisis escalates

Design of Japan's nuclear plants faulted
New York (UPI) Mar 15, 2011 - Experts say a weakness in the design of Japan's nuclear reactors -- a design going back to the 1960s -- may be a factor in the country's developing catastrophe. Warnings about the Mark 1 nuclear reactor design were being sounded as far back as 1972, focused on what would happen to the primary containment vessel surrounding the reactor if cooling systems failed, as has happened in Japan's ongoing earthquake-tsunami disaster, The New York Times reported Tuesday.

The containment vessel, typically made of steel and concrete, is designed to prevent melting fuel rods from spewing radiation into the environment if cooling efforts completely fail. Most installations around the world use a type of system, known as a pressurized water reactor, which is sealed inside a thick, steel-and-cement tomb. But the type of containment vessel and pressure suppression system used in the failing reactors at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi plant are physically less robust, and have long been considered more susceptible to failure in an emergency than other, newer designs.

The Mark 1 boiling water reactors were developed by General Electric and marketed as less expensive and easier to build, based partly on their comparatively smaller and less costly containment structures, the Times reported. In 1972, an Atomic Energy Commission safety official said the sort of "pressure-suppression" system used in G.E.'s Mark 1 plants presented unacceptable safety risks and it should be discontinued. Among concerns raised by Stephen Hanauer in his 1972 memo was that the smaller containment design was more susceptible to explosion and rupture from a buildup in hydrogen, a situation that may have led to the recent blasts at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.
by Staff Writers
Tokyo (UPI) Mar 15, 2011
Japan's nuclear crisis continues to unfold after a fourth explosion Tuesday at the Fukushima nuclear plant was followed by a fire at a spent fuel pond, releasing radiation into the atmosphere.

Two of the reactors at the plant, 170 miles north of Tokyo, crippled after last Friday's earthquake and tsunami, had been damaged by blasts Saturday and Monday.

In a report dated Wednesday, Kyodo News said the latest blast occurred at the No. 4 reactor Tuesday morning, creating two square-shaped holes, approximately 26 feet by 26 feet, in the walls of the building that houses the reactor. Later, a fire broke out, smoke billowing from the holes.

That followed a "critical situation" at the No. 2 reactor -- an "apparent hydrogen explosion"-- that had occurred four minutes earlier, damaging a portion of the reactor's containment vessel, Kyodo said.

The No. 4 reactor houses the spent fuel rods. Normally, those fuel rods are immersed in cold water because they need to be cool for three or four years after they have been used in one of the other three reactors, BBC reported.

In a televised address Tuesday, Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan called for calm.

"There is still a very high risk of further radioactive material coming out," Kan said. "The people at the power plant are carrying out an operation to inject water to cool the reactors and I would like to ask the nation, that although this is an incident of great concern, I request that you act very calmly."

However, because of high levels of radiation at the No. 4 reactor following the blast, workers weren't able to prepare for the pouring of water into the distressed pool, Kyodo reports.

Plant operator Tokyo Electric Power Co. said it would attempt to pour water into the facility Wednesday via the holes that were created during the blast, Kyodo reports.

Later Tuesday, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yuko Edano said radiation levels had decreased.

"Radiation levels monitored near the front gate of the plant as of 9 a.m. were 11,930 microsieverts, a very high level. At 3:30 p.m. this came down to 496.4, much higher than a normal level but still … a level to cause no harm to human health," he told reporters.

Kyodo reported that Toshiba Corp. had sent "dozens" of its engineers to the plant at the request of the government and TEPCO amid rising fears of radioactive contamination. They are to instruct plant workers on the usage of pumps to inject water into the plant's reactors. Toshiba had supplied much of the equipment for the plant's reactors, Kyodo said.

"As some of these (cooling) efforts fail, the options, of course, become limited," Reza Hashemi-Nezhad, the director of the Institute of Nuclear Science at the University of Sydney told The Australian newspaper.

Hashemi-Nezhad said that any structural damage to reactor No. 2 was a worrying development and described the reported levels of radiation released at the plant as being of concern. But it was unlikely, he said, that any leakage of radiation would be as serious as the Chernobyl disaster of 1986.




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DISASTER MANAGEMENT
'Rigged' cooling may fail at Japan nuke plant: US scientist
Washington (AFP) March 15, 2011
If radiation levels continue to rise around Japan's earthquake-hit nuclear facilities, all remaining workers would have to evacuate and attempts to manually cool the reactor could fail, US scientists said Tuesday. Only about 50 nuclear workers have stayed behind to douse the stricken reactors with sea water and authorities were mulling using water-dropping helicopters as the crisis at the ag ... read more

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