England, UK (SPX) Aug 02, 2010
Research at the UK's University of Warwick, and the University of Goettingen in Germany, has found that the use of a particular GM crop in India produced massive benefits in the earnings and employment opportunities for rural Indian women.
The research led by Dr Arjunan Subramanian of WMG (Warwick Manufacturing Group) in the University of Warwick found that the use of GM insect-resistant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt) cotton generated not only higher income for rural workers but also more employment, especially for hired female labour.
Since its commercialization in India in the year 2002, the area in which Bt cotton is cultivated increased to 7.6 million hectares in 2008. Several studies show sizable direct benefits of the technology but no study so far has analyzed the gender aspect of this technology.
The researchers found that compared with conventional cotton the Bt cotton generated additional employment, raising the total wage income by 40 US dollars per hectare. The largest increase is for hired females with a gain of 55% in average income.
This translates to about 424 million additional days of employment for female earners for the total Bt cotton area in India. The researchers found that the Increase in returns to hired female labour is mostly related to higher yields in Bt cotton leading to additional labour being employed to pick the increased production of cotton (harvesting of cotton is primarily a female activity in India).
Dr Arjunan Subramanian said: "We also found that the use of Bt cotton also improved female working conditions as the reduction in the amount of family male labour involved in scouting and spraying for pests meant that that labour was reallocated to other household economic activities, previously carried out by female family members, increasing the returns to this labour category. Overall, therefore, Bt cotton enhances the quality of life of women through increasing income and reducing 'femanual' work."
The research results come from two household survey. The first was undertaken in a study village where the team collected comprehensive data on household characteristics and interactions across various markets.
The study village, Kanzara, is located in the Akola district of Maharashtra, the state with the largest area under cotton in India. Interviews with all village households and institutions were conducted in 2004, capturing all household economic activities and transactions for the 12-month period between April 2003 and March 2004.
All farm households cultivate at least some cotton, mostly next to a number of food and fodder crops for subsistence consumption and for sale. The second survey used data from a farm sample survey conducted over a period of 5 years.
Share This Article With Planet Earth
University of Warwick
All About Human Beings and How We Got To Be Here
Divers Plumb The Mysteries Of Sacred Maya Pools
Champaign IL (SPX) Jul 29, 2010
Steering clear of crocodiles and navigating around massive submerged trees, a team of divers began mapping some of the 25 freshwater pools of Cara Blanca, Belize, which were important to the ancient Maya. In three weeks this May, the divers found fossilized animal remains, bits of pottery and - in the largest pool explored - an enormous underwater cave. This project, led by University of I ... read more
Japanese rescue-bot can sniff out disaster survivors|
Flood-triggered landslide in China leaves 21 missing
Haiti's homeless on the move again as hurricanes loom
Wildfire Prevention Pays Big Dividends In Florida
Africa, Mideast behind cellphone bonanza
Smartphones tempting new targets for hackers
Amazon looking to go 'mass market' with Kindle price cut
Howcast, or 'How to Build a New Media Company'
Artificially Controlling Water Condensation Leads To 'Room-Temperature Ice'
Nanotechnology For Water Purification
Decline Of Marine Phytoplankton Over The Past Century
Scientists Uncover Global Distribution Of Marine Biodiversity
Best Hope For Saving Arctic Sea Ice Is Cutting Soot Emissions
Cutting Into Arctic Sea Ice
Whether Glaciers Float May Affect Sea-Level Rise
In Arctic, scientists see dire effect of ocean acidification
Mines and wines in Australia climate battle
Modified cotton helps Indian women
Goa's frog poachers feed taste for 'jumping chicken'
Seville to become as hot as Tucson by end of century: study
Birth Of A Hurricane
Flood toll in China's northeast rises to 100: state media
Pakistan flood toll tops 1,100 as cholera emerges
Floods kill 29 in China's northeast
GBissau records veterans in demobilisation drive
Uganda's rebels seen behind border killing
Congo boat disaster leaves 140 dead
Mubarak passes on African Union summit
Massive Gains For Women's Employment In India
Divers Plumb The Mysteries Of Sacred Maya Pools
Scientists use noses to help disabled write, surf, move
New Hypothesis For Human Evolution And Human Nature
|The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2010 - SpaceDaily. AFP and UPI Wire Stories are copyright Agence France-Presse and United Press International. ESA Portal Reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement,agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by SpaceDaily on any Web page published or hosted by SpaceDaily. Privacy Statement|