Subscribe to our free daily newsletters
. Earth Science News .




Subscribe to our free daily newsletters



ABOUT US
Research reveals how neurons communicate
by Brooks Hays
Washington (UPI) Aug 17, 2017


New research at the University of Pittsburgh suggests scientists have misunderstood the neuron communication process, specifically the dopamine release mechanism.

The discovery -- detailed this week in the journal Neuron -- could have wide ranging implications for the study and treatment of dopamine-related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and addiction.

Neurons communicate by releasing neurotransmitters like dopamine into the small gap known as a synapse before they're received by other neurons. Inside neurons, neurotransmitters await their release inside small sacs called vesicles.

In studying the release process, researchers found the vesicles begin to fill again before being emptied. Researchers believe the process is triggered by elevated acidity levels in the vesicles.

Until now, scientists believed vesicle acidity remained constant. The discovery suggests neurons can alter the amount of dopamine released based on neuronal activity.

"When this mechanism doesn't work properly, it could lead to profound effects on health," Dr. Zachary Freyberg, an assistant professor of psychiatry and cell biology at Pitt, said in a news release.

"Our findings were completely unexpected," he added. "They contradict the existing dogma that a finite amount of chemical signal is loaded into a vesicle at any given time, and that vesicle acidity is fixed."

Further investigation revealed an influx of glutamate ions into the neuron's center to be the cause of the increase in vesicle acidity.

When researchers blocked the flow of glutamate in fruit fly and mice models, the test subjects were less reactive to amphetamine, a stimulant that encourages the release of dopamine.

"It appears that these vesicles contain both dopamine and glutamate, and dynamically modify their content to match the conditions of the cell as needed," Freyberg said.

Researchers intend to take a closer look at how increased vesicle acidity affects human health. Dopamine-related disorders like depression and anxiety may also be glutamate-related disorders.

"Since we have demonstrated that the balance between glutamate and dopamine is important for controlling the amount of dopamine that a neuron releases, it stands to reason that an imbalance between the two neurotransmitters could be contributing to symptoms in these diseases," said Freyberg.

ABOUT US
Arrival of modern humans in Southeast Asia questioned
Brisbane, Australia (SPX) Aug 16, 2017
Humans may have exited out of Africa and arrived in Southeast Asia 20,000 years earlier than previously thought, a new study involving University of Queensland researchers suggests. Findings from the Macquarie University-led study also suggest humans could have potentially made the crossing to Australia even earlier than the accepted 60,000 to 65,000 years ago. Dr Gilbert Price of UQ ... read more

Related Links
All About Human Beings and How We Got To Be Here


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

Comment using your Disqus, Facebook, Google or Twitter login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

ABOUT US
Libyan marine rescue zone aims to 'organise' NGOs: navy

Urban flooding on the rise, as countryside dries up

Hunter fells elephant that killed 15 in India

Shoot-to-kill: India hunts serial killer elephant

ABOUT US
Electricity and silver effective at keeping bacteria off plastics

Researchers 3-D print first truly microfluidic 'lab on a chip' devices

2-faced 2-D material is a first at Rice

Fewer defects from a 2-D approach

ABOUT US
New technique offers clues to measure the deoxygenation of the ocean

Meadow of dancing brittle stars shows evolution at work

Ancient ocean deoxygenation provides an urgent warning

Japan launches study into suspected Chinese coral poaching

ABOUT US
Melting of Greenland glacier to speed up: study

Not all glaciers in Antarctica have been affected by climate change

Extreme melt season leads to decade-long ecosystem changes in Antarctic polar desert

Researchers crack the 'Karakoram anomaly'

ABOUT US
Oceans possess vast, untapped potential for sustainable aquaculture

Efforts to reduce pollution from agriculture paying off slowly

'Inefficient' sailing fleet keeps oyster fishery alive

Climate change will cut crop yields: study

ABOUT US
Climate change shifts timing of European floods

Hurricane Gert churns up dangerous swells on US east coast

At least 221 dead in India, Bangladesh, Nepal floods

Sierra Leone appeals for urgent help after deadly floods

ABOUT US
Dalai Lama cancels Botswana trip with 'exhaustion'

UN says Nigeria relations 'intact' after unauthorised raid

Nigerian forces in 'unauthorised search' of UN camp

Kenyan opposition demands Odinga be 'declared president'

ABOUT US
New 13-million-year-old infant skull sheds light on ape ancestry

Arrival of modern humans in Southeast Asia questioned

Ancient infant skull yields insights into human-ape lineage

New look at archaic DNA rewrites human evolution story




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement