Subscribe to our free daily newsletters
. Earth Science News .




Subscribe to our free daily newsletters



WATER WORLD
Study finds native Olympia oysters more resilient to ocean acidification
by Staff Writers
Corvallis OR (SPX) Jun 15, 2016


Native Olympia oysters developed their shells slowly, at a lower cost.

Native Olympia oysters, which once thrived along the Pacific Northwest coast until over-harvesting and habitat loss all but wiped them out, have a built-in resistance to ocean acidification during a key shell-building phase after spawning, according to a newly published study.

Unlike the commercially raised Pacific oysters, Olympia oysters don't begin making their shells until 2-3 days after fertilization and make them far more slowly, which helps protect them from corrosive water during this critical development phase, said Oregon State University's George Waldbusser, principal investigator on the project.

Pacific oysters, on the other hand, only have a six-hour window to develop their calcium carbonate shell, and when exposed to acidified water, their energy stores become depleted. The larval oysters may get through the shell-building stage, Waldbusser said, but they often will not have enough energy to survive.

Results of the study are being published this week in the Journal of Limnology and Oceanography.

"This is a unique trait that allows native oysters to survive surprisingly high levels of acidification," said Waldbusser, a marine ecologist in OSU's College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences. "But they didn't develop that trait in response to rising acidification. It has been there for some time. It does make you wonder if there may be traits in other organisms that we're unaware of that may be beneficial."

In their study, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, the OSU researchers measured the calcification rates of both Olympia and Pacific oysters for five days after spawning, taking measurements every three hours. Although other studies have looked at the effects of acidified water on adult oysters, this is the first time researchers have been able to pinpoint its effect on larval oysters in the shell-building stage.

What they found was a seven-fold difference in the calcification rate. Pacific oysters put all of their energy into rapidly developing a shell, but the price of that investment is huge.

Native Olympia oysters developed their shells much more slowly, but seemingly at a lower cost.

"Pacific oysters churn out tens of millions of eggs, and those eggs are much smaller than those of native oysters even though they eventually become much larger as adults," Waldbusser said. "Pacific oysters have less energy invested in each offspring. Olympia oysters have more of an initial energy investment from Mom, and can spend more time developing their shells and dealing with acidified water."

The OSU researchers found that relative energy stores of young Pacific oysters declined by 38.6 percent an hour, and only 0.9 percent in Olympia oysters.

The study noted other interesting differences between Pacific and Olympia oysters. Native Olympia oyster larvae develop in a brood chamber, where the embryos take longer to develop. However, these brood chambers don't necessarily protect the young oysters from acidified water, since water is continually pumped through the chamber.

To test how the oysters would do when raised like Pacific oysters - outside the chamber - the researchers conducted an experiment raising the larval Olympia oysters outside their brood chamber and exposing them to acidified water.

"Brooding was thought to provide several advantages to developing young, but we found it does not provide any physiological advantage to the larvae," said Matthew Gray, a former doctoral student in OSU's Department of Fisheries and Wildlife and now a post-doctoral researcher at the University of Maine. "They did just as well outside the brood chamber as inside.

"Brooding does help guard the larvae from predators and some adverse environmental changes - such as low-salinity events - but it plays no role in protecting native oysters against acidification."

The research highlights this robust response to ocean acidification at this critical life-history stage of Olympia oyster larvae, a period which has not previously been studied. Past studies conducted by Annaliese Hettinger, a post-doctoral researcher in Waldbusser's lab, found that the Olympia oyster larvae are sensitive to acidification in the later swimming stage, and those effects can carry over to adult stages.

The current research may, however, have implications for the future of the commercial oyster industry, given that many of the problems seem to originate at this very early developmental stage. Cultivation of native oysters could help guard against catastrophic Pacific oyster losses due to acidification, the researchers say, or it may be possible to breed some of the Olympia oysters' beneficial traits into Pacific oysters - either slowing the calcification rate of early larvae or producing fewer and bigger eggs.

The Olympia oyster, which is smaller than the commercially grown Pacific oyster, is prized for its distinctive flavor. Originally, Olympia oysters grew from Baja California to Vancouver Island, and are found sparingly in three Oregon bays - Yaquina, Netarts and Coos Bay. During the height of these harvests in the 1890s, some 130,000 bushels of oysters were annually shipped from the Pacific Northwest to California and within 20 years, 90 percent of these native oysters had disappeared.

Researchers speculate that the remaining Olympia oyster populations may have succumbed to increased silt generated by 20th-century logging and mill operations, which either killed them outright or covered their beds and destroyed their habitat. They have not returned in discernible numbers to Oregon estuaries.

Research paper: Slow shell building, a possible trait for resistance to the effects of acute ocean acidification


Thanks for being here;
We need your help. The SpaceDaily news network continues to grow but revenues have never been harder to maintain.

With the rise of Ad Blockers, and Facebook - our traditional revenue sources via quality network advertising continues to decline. And unlike so many other news sites, we don't have a paywall - with those annoying usernames and passwords.

Our news coverage takes time and effort to publish 365 days a year.

If you find our news sites informative and useful then please consider becoming a regular supporter or for now make a one off contribution.

SpaceDaily Contributor
$5 Billed Once


credit card or paypal
SpaceDaily Monthly Supporter
$5 Billed Monthly


paypal only

.


Related Links
Oregon State University
Water News - Science, Technology and Politics






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle

Previous Report
WATER WORLD
Algorithm ranks thermotolerance of algae
Evanston IL (SPX) Jun 16, 2016
Northwestern University researchers have developed a quantitative tool that might help bring back coral from the brink of extinction. The novel algorithm could help assess and predict the future of coral bleaching events by better understanding the coral's symbiotic partner: algae. "Coral is not an independent organism," said Luisa Marcelino, research assistant professor of civil and envir ... read more


WATER WORLD
Iraq's Fallujah faces 'disaster', NGO warns

Hundreds left homeless after Sri Lanka depot blast

Sri Lanka races to defuse bombs after depot blast

Thousands flee Sri Lanka ammunition depot explosions

WATER WORLD
Can computers do magic?

Video game giant Ubisoft thinking young at age 30

New maths accurately captures liquids and surfaces moving in synergy

Oregon chemists build a new, stable open-shell molecule

WATER WORLD
Study finds native Olympia oysters more resilient to ocean acidification

Taiwan lawmakers urge Formosa probe over Vietnam fish deaths

Researchers release 'Frankenturtles' into Chesapeake Bay

Modern mussel shells much thinner than 50 years ago

WATER WORLD
Huge ancient river basin explains location of the world's fastest flowing glacier

FAA asks US pilots to be considerate of walruses

Carbon dioxide biggest player in thawing permafrost

Russia unveils 'world's biggest' nuclear icebreaker

WATER WORLD
EU closes in on hormone-disrupting chemicals

Neolithic paddy soil reveals the impacts of agriculture on microbial diversity

Ancient West African soil technique could mitigate climate change

Sunflower pollen protects bees from parasites

WATER WORLD
Arc volcano releases mix of material from Earth's mantle and crust

10 dead in Ghana floods

Spectacular ash explosion at Philippine volcano

Tropical Storm Colin: Florida declares state of emergency

WATER WORLD
UN mulls Mali mission as body count mounts

Uganda set to pull troops out of C. Africa: army

Lagos floating school collapses in heavy rains

Sierra Leone war criminal dies in Rwanda

WATER WORLD
To retain newly learned info, exercise four hours later

Student research settles 'superpower showdown'

The primate brain is 'pre-adapted' to face potentially any situation

New fossils shed light on the origin of 'hobbits'




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News






The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2017 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. All articles labeled "by Staff Writers" include reports supplied to Space Media Network by industry news wires, PR agencies, corporate press officers and the like. Such articles are individually curated and edited by Space Media Network staff on the basis of the report's information value to our industry and professional readership. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement