Free Newsletters - Space - Defense - Environment - Energy - Solar - Nuclear
..
. Earth Science News .




WATER WORLD
Water found to provide blueprints for root architecture
by Staff Writers
Stanford CA (SPX) Jun 16, 2014


This is a cross section of a rice root showing the development of a root branch towards water. Image courtesy Pooja Aggarwal.

Soil is a microscopic maze of nooks and crannies that hosts a wide array of life. Plants explore this environment by developing a complex branched network of roots that tap into scarce resources such as water and nutrients. How roots sense which regions of soil contain water and what effect this moisture has on the architecture of the root system has been unclear.

New research from a team led by Carnegie's Jose Dinneny focuses on how physical properties of a root's local environment control root branching and through which developmental pathways these signals act.

Their findings, published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describe a novel process called hydropatterning that allows plants to optimize root branching for water uptake.

Plant roots form a branching network like that above ground, with lateral roots growing out from a main axis. Because water is not uniformly distributed in soil, the structure of the root system networks needs to be regulated in ways that optimizes soil exploration, while limiting growth into water-poor regions.

Dinneny and his team developed methods for growing roots in environments in whiche the distributions of water and air around the root were highly controlled. By analyzing the position where new branches formed, the researchers found that plants tend to place these root branches in close proximity to where water exists, while tiny root hairs appear in areas exposed to air.

Their work revealed that opposite sides of the same single root are optimized to take advantage of air or water resources when the environment is varied. Working with colleagues Malcolm Bennett and Sacha Mooney at the University of Nottingham, micro-scale X-ray tomography was used to build 3-D models of roots growing in soil and revealed that similar processes occur in this more-natural environment.

"We had completely underestimated the spatial acuity of the patterning system in the root. It was fascinating to discover that roots can respond to environmental conditions that vary over distances as small as 100 microns, which is the size of a typical soil particle," said Dinneny.

The team named the new phenomenon hydropatterning and they observed it in several plant species, including the important crop plants maize and rice.

The process is controlled by signaling pathways in the plant that are distinct from previously characterized drought responses suggesting that hydropatterning could be important for regulating root branching under non-stressful growth conditions.

"This simple observation opens up a whole new area of investigation for us," Dinneny said. "How plant cells distinguish between wet and dry environments is an important frontier that may lead to a better understanding of how plants efficiently use water."

.


Related Links
Carnegie Institution
Water News - Science, Technology and Politics






Comment on this article via your Facebook, Yahoo, AOL, Hotmail login.

Share this article via these popular social media networks
del.icio.usdel.icio.us DiggDigg RedditReddit GoogleGoogle




Memory Foam Mattress Review
Newsletters :: SpaceDaily :: SpaceWar :: TerraDaily :: Energy Daily
XML Feeds :: Space News :: Earth News :: War News :: Solar Energy News





WATER WORLD
New England lakes recovering rapidly from acid rain
Durham NH (SPX) Jun 10, 2014
For more than 40 years, policy makers have been working to reduce acid rain, a serious environmental problem that can devastate lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and animals that live in these ecosystems. Now new research funded by the NH Agricultural Experiment Station (NHAES) at the University of New Hampshire College of Life Sciences and Agriculture indicates that lakes in New Englan ... read more


WATER WORLD
100 days after MH370, Malaysia vows to keep searching

With China as guest, G77 summit seeks new development pledges

Ten migrants die in shipwreck off Libya: Italian navy

Fukushima struggling to build ice wall to plug leak

WATER WORLD
PlayStation lets Sony grab for home entertainment crown

3D printer cleared for lift-off to ISS in August

SanDisk buys storage rival Fusion-io for $1.6 bn

3-D printing technology transforms dentistry, real estate and more

WATER WORLD
US joins bid to create vast Pacific marine reserve; Kiribati bans fishing

How red tide knocks out its competition

Water found to provide blueprints for root architecture

Malawi's prized chambo fish faces extinction

WATER WORLD
Antarctic species dwindle as icebergs batter shores year-round

New permafrost is forming around shrinking Arctic lakes

Researchers find major West Antarctic glacier melting from geothermal sources

Great Lakes finally free of ice

WATER WORLD
Findings may advance iron-rich, cadmium-free crops

Palmer amaranth threatens Midwest farm economy

Famine fear won't sway minds on GM crops

EU to allow states to decide to grow GM foods

WATER WORLD
Moderate quakes hit near Japan's Fukushima

Changes in wind shear offers evidence for pole ward shift of hurricane intensity

Cristina strengthens to category four hurricane: NHC

Flooding in Paraguay sends thousands fleeing to shelters

WATER WORLD
Central Africans call for rearming of their ragtag army

Suicide bomber kills four Chadian UN peacekeepers in Mali

US law has helped limit 'conflict minerals': study

Georgia sends troops to Central Africa

WATER WORLD
Inca trails, ancient French cave vie for World Heritage status

Chimpanzees spontaneously initiate and maintain cooperative behavior

Serious challenges to 'New Urbanist' communities

Seafarers brought Neolithic culture to Europe, gene study indicates




The content herein, unless otherwise known to be public domain, are Copyright 1995-2014 - Space Media Network. All websites are published in Australia and are solely subject to Australian law and governed by Fair Use principals for news reporting and research purposes. AFP, UPI and IANS news wire stories are copyright Agence France-Presse, United Press International and Indo-Asia News Service. ESA news reports are copyright European Space Agency. All NASA sourced material is public domain. Additional copyrights may apply in whole or part to other bona fide parties. Advertising does not imply endorsement, agreement or approval of any opinions, statements or information provided by Space Media Network on any Web page published or hosted by Space Media Network. Privacy Statement All images and articles appearing on Space Media Network have been edited or digitally altered in some way. Any requests to remove copyright material will be acted upon in a timely and appropriate manner. Any attempt to extort money from Space Media Network will be ignored and reported to Australian Law Enforcement Agencies as a potential case of financial fraud involving the use of a telephonic carriage device or postal service.